Instruction nº 01/, which establishes the criteria for sustainable .. outras providências (Decreto nº , de 23 de dezembro de ). de Residuos Solidos (Lei 12,/), Decreto Regulamentador (Dec. 7,/ ), Responsabilidade Compartilhada, Logistica Reversa. The City currently landfills the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. (MSW). ..
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The Research Problem and Objectives. Any policy maker becomes apprehensive in analyzing these results.
In this paper, we analyze Public Consortia of Municipalities, a basic instrument of the National Policy for Solid Waste of Brazil, a country with more than deccreto. Public Consortia is expected to reduce costs due to economies of scale and smaller demand for land.
Since 20010 Rio Conference 92, there has been the incorporation of new priorities for sustainable solid waste management, which has directed the action of Governments, industry and society. In particular, one of the biggest problems in densely urbanized areas, especially in metropolitan areas, is the lack of appropriate places to have the waste properly disposed. Twelve of them reported not having any plan; only seven have a Municipal Integrated Plan and four the Inter-municipal.
As far as the formation of a Consortia is concerned, lack of Integrated Solid Waste Management Plans will require d efforts in training of human resources, since several initial steps that should be part of the creation of Consortia requires, for example, under taking economic and financial feasibility studies.
Considering that the major goal of the 29 Consortia is the final disposal of solid waste 22010, consequently, the construction 704 landfills, it is motive of concern the low proportion of studies on territorial characteristics, land use occupation and distance between the municipalities in the answers of the 29 Consortia. This reality of municipal solid waste management MSWM is also present in a large and economic diversified country like Brazil, where municipalities are responsible, by law, for the provision for public service of urban cleaning and solid waste management.
Municipal Solid Waste Management: Contato por e-mail em 27 mai. The informational gap identified led us to expand the purpose of the work, corroborating the vision of Ethridge to expose that the data and the data collection process can affect how one perceives the problem and how one takes conscience of it. Through gathering deceeto information and empirical data our analysis reveals challenges that are not being addressed and that impact in both, the formation of Public Consortia, as well as the urban solid waste management alternatives.
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Elaborated by authors based upon data from this research. Chart 2 shows that in the three regions, of Brazil the main objectives are: Lessons from the Brazilian Experience. Thus, despite some limitations, the approval of PNRS in marked a new stage in public policy of SWM in Decrrto because it standardizes the processes and duties to be fulfilled by individuals, companies and governments nationwide.
In places without waste management policy, the first step is the implementation of a direct regulation. Waste Management, 26, Instead of pointing out which factors most influence the efficiency of Consortia, the paper exposes which of them are considered on its formation and the consequences for their efficiency. Rio de Janeiro, RJ.
On the other hand, half of the 29 Consortia manifested the need for tax collection as a challenge to cover expenditure on maintaining services. Data from the IBGE a confirms that the absence of such analyzes is a dominant reality in Brazilian municipalities, given that only Dexreto was confirmed by the responses of the 29 Consortia analyzed.
The data from Chart 1 demonstrates that, for the 29 Consortia, the formation of Public Consortia tends to focus in municipalities with up to 50, inhabitants 6being the majority concentrated in the ranges between 10, to 50, inhabitants. Public Consortia as an Alternative Scale-Efficient? If these Consortia come into operation inthey took four to five years from the first phase of discussion and to the second phase of execution.
The PNRS imposes deadlines for the closure of dumpsites and the implementation of proper waste disposal, providing treatment, recycling, composting, gas recovery from landfills, planning and cost recovery initiatives, putting pressure on governments at all levels, especially the municipal, to comply with the new law. In this context, effective management of municipal waste is required, but local authorities in many countries are constrained by limited finances and decret services.
Six of them did not answer the question. They pointed out some advantages and disadvantages of municipalities deciding to create Consortia for SWM. Since there is no Federal Agency that centralizes this information, we conducted a survey in all 26 Brazilian states and the Federal District.
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Why municipalities and states create Consortia for a shared SWM? Details of Public Consortia are summarized in Table 1. It also presents some requirements, such as closing landfills, creating plans, implementation of proper disposal of waste treatment, recycling, composting, gas recovery from landfills, planning and cost recovery initiatives. The first question that drove this study was drcreto establish whether the prioritization and the incentive to the access to government resources provided by the PNRS to municipalities, for formation of Public Consortia for regionalized management of USW services, led to an efficient MSWM.
To understand a policy instrument is necessary to understand their characteristics and what it entails in terms of effectiveness, efficiency and equity.